Number of stemflow collectors: Eight
Distribution of stemflow collectors on the plot: Strictly random selection of all living stems greater than 7 cm diameter at 1.3 m height
Sampler description: Helical gutters attached to the tree leading to an 80 litre bin
Material of the stemflow gutters: Extruded Silicone rubber gutter. Silicone tubing leads to the collecting bin.
Material of the stemflow bin: Graduated polyethylene 80 litre bin
Method of holding sampler: Stemflow gutter is attached to the tree using silicon mastic and stainless steel screws at upper and lower ends.
Height above ground: 130 cm


Collection frequency: Weekly
Collection Method: The volume of stemflow in the graduated bin is recorded on the field sheet. A sub-sample of 250 ml is taken from the 80 litre bin in a laboratory cleaned bottle. The remaining stemflow in the bin is carefully poured out around the base of the tree.
When the sampler overflows: If the bin overflows, then the maximum volume of container is taken as the sample volume. Some trees consistently gave large volumes of stemflow and in this case, an overflow bin was installed.
Samples are rejected when: The collector is damaged
There is litterfall in sample
  There is ambiguously labelled samples, signs of human interference, recent maintenance or installation work on gutter
Stemflow sample transportation medium: 250 ml collection bottle with clean lid
Stemflow samples are transported to the laboratory by: Courier


from litterfall: Nylon Filter, 1 mm mesh, placed at the lower end of the gutter
 from bird droppings: The bin has a lid which keeps out contamination
 from animals / humans: Plot fenced
 from algae growth: Storage container is opaque (dark green). Preservatives are not used, weekly sampling is intended to reduce algal growth
Stemflow sample protection measures used, to avoid unwanted biochemical changes during storage between sampling and analysis: Keep the sample in the dark
Cool the sample to < 4 degrees C when it arrives in the laboratory
Weekly sampling is intended to limit biochemical changes.


pH and Conductivity pH and Conductivity meters
Ammonium Colorimetrically using the phenol-hypochlorite method (Solórzano, 1967) read on a UV at 635 nm
Molybdate Reactive Phosphorus Acid-antimony-molybdate method (Murphy and Riley, 1962) read on a UV at 880 nm
Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Manganese, total Aluminium Inductively-coupled-plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP). If K <1 mg L-1, potassium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AA)
Chloride, Nitrate, Orthophosphate, Sulphate Ion chromatography (IC), using an anion exchange column and conductivity detection
 Alkalinity Gran titration (Mackereth et al., 1978)
Total Nitrogen Digestion and colorimetric measurement (Koroleff, 1973)
Dissolved Organic Carbon UV at 320 nm (Gorham et al., 1985), after filtration through a 0.45 µm filter and calculation by regression equation

Repeat analysis is done on the basis of ion balances & ion ratios, comparing analysis to historical values for the same source. Critical limits are not applied. Following any repeat analysis, the less-unfamiliar-looking result is accepted. No sample is rejected on the basis of analytical results.

Last update: 20-March 2001
This page managed by: Gillian M. Boyle
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