ICCS Newsletter Autumn 2018








AUTUMN 2018



Contents

1. Programme
2. Annual Barbeque, Wesley House, Sunday 9th September.
3. Mr. Yuyang Wang, Inner Mongolia, Past and Present.
4. ‘EU-China Tourism Year – Opportunity for Ireland’ The Westbury, 28th March 2018
5. CIMA Book Donation Lexicon Library, 10th April.
6. AGM 25th April. Chinese Ink Art Demonstration by Ms. Angelia Yingge Xu.
7. 26th April. Dinner Sichuan Chilli King Restaurant.
8. 23rd May – Share and Tell Party Photo Gallery.
9. 30th May - Asia Market Tour.
10. Upcoming Events.

1. Programme


For information on our programme, click HERE.   

Please note our meeting venue,

United Arts Club,
3 Fitzwilliam Street,

(just off Baggot Street,)
Dublin 2,

and meeting days,

the FOURTH WEDNESDAY (mostly!) of each month.











For information on our programme, click HERE.   






2.9th Sept. – The Annual Barbeque will take place at the Centenary Methodist Church/Wesley House, Leeson Park, starting at 2.30..



If the summer so far has been anything to go by it will be parasols rather than umbrellas.

2.28th March – Mr Yuyang Wang Inner Mongolia, Past and Present.





Independent film-maker Mr. Yuyang Wang gave us a fascinating insight, in both words and pictures, into some of the colourful customs and traditions of his native inner Mongolia, customs experienced at first hand by Yuyang’s Irish friends Bernard and Aileen at a welcome dinner for them: horn drinking and sky sprinkling (a ritual of tossing milk into the air or sprinkling it onto a person as a form of blessing). He related a Mongolian fairy tale, which tells the story of Queen Alungoo and cleverly transmits the value of solidarity. She was a remote ancestor of Genghis Khan whose five sons didn’t get along. The queen didn’t know how to bring peace into her family until one day she called them to her and gave an arrow to each of them.She told them to break the arrow, and all succeeded easily. Then she made a bundle of five arrows and asked them to break it, but none of them was able to. “My sons, you are like these arrows. If you are on your own, you might break. But when you are all together, you are invincible”.


We then enjoyed a rare musical treat. Malaysian-Chinese Opera singer Florence Chong, who has performed many opera roles with distinction both in Ireland and abroad, came to us fresh from her success in winning the J.T. Horne Memorial Perpetual Trophy at the Feis Maitiú in Cork and treated us to a beautiful coloratura soprano rendition of ‘Der Hölle Rache’ (The Queen of the Night's Aria from The Magic Flute) It was a lovely way to round off the evening.

3.‘EU-China Tourism Year – Opportunity for Ireland’ The Westbury, 28th March 2018



Niall Gibbons, Chief Executive of Tourism Ireland, began by advising us about the 4 key ingredients required for success in doing business with China, namely, Access (particularly topical given the instigation of direct flights from Dublin to Beijing and Hong Kong), Visa availability, where improvements are in train with regard to easing the requirements for both business and study visas, an effective marketing programme and, last but not least, being China Ready. Not surprisingly, the latter point was to feature prominently throughout the morning.



Niall spoke to us about tourism from China as an expanding market, which is rising in double digit percentages year on year. For the record he informed us that the top 3 attractions for Chinese tourists in Ireland are The Giants’ Causeway, the Titanic Centre in Belfast and the Guinness Storehouse in Thomas Street. The Irish Ambassador to China H.E. Mr. Eoin O Leary joined us via a giant screen from Beijing and informed us that a part of the Great Wall of China had been lit up in green for St. Patrick’s Day. We were later to hear from H.E. Ambassador Dr Yue Xiaoyong that the number of public buildings in Ireland that were lit up in red for the Chinese New Year had increased from 12 to 18 while Shanghai’s Pearl Tower and some buildings in Nanjing were lit up in green in honour of St. Patrick’s Day.

The Chinese Ambassador began his contribution by thanking Susan Barrett, Chairperson of the ICBA and Niall Gibbons. He went on to speak about the Tánaiste’s recent visit to China for St. Patrick’s Day and the warm relations that had developed between Simon Coveney and Counsellor Wang Yi. At such a key time, good inter-personal relations among those in leadership roles are invaluable. China is now in the process of opening up to the world and is eager to benefit others and, according to the Ambassador, Ireland’s tourist trade shouldn’t miss this train to a better future!
In this context he spoke positively about developments like the aforesaid direct flights, the easing of visa restrictions and the new opportunities opening up as the outbound tourism market of the world’s second largest economy continues to expand exponentially from 135 million in 2017 to an expected 150 million by 2020. The potential for growth in this market is highlighted quite dramatically by the fact that only 4% of the Chinese population have passports at present, a percentage that is expected to jump to 12% by 2020.
As it is bilateral trade reached 11 billion USD in 2017, 36.7% higher than 2016, while Irish investment to China at the same period amounted to over 150 million USD, representing a growth rate of 350%! More than 70,000 Chinese tourists visited Ireland in 2017, a number that is expected to rise to 100, 000 with the introduction of direct flights. He was also encouraging about developing tourism from Ireland to China and noted the increased popularity of Gaelic Sports and Irish Dancing in his home country. In the context of discussing the joint efforts that will be required to maximise the opportunities for future cooperation he referenced Xi Xin Ping’s dictum that ‘Happiness and well-being come from hard work.’ Such work will be needed in the tourism sector in the form of enhanced hotel capacity, improved payment systems, signage in Mandarin ( he welcomed its imminent introduction to the Leaving Certificate), a general easing of formalities and improvements in the quality of the two country’s strategic partnership ‘for a better and shared future.’ Dr. Tony Lenehan, Executive Director, Centre for Competitiveness (Ireland) and Ms. Tara Kerry, Business Development Manager, Fáilte Ireland spoke on the topic of ‘Supporting Tourism and Hospitality Enterprises to become ‘China Ready’’


Tara spoke to us first about building on the main holiday times for Chinese tourists i.e. around the Harvest and Spring Festivals when the heat maps tell us that there is spare capacity in the Irish hotel sector. Her main concerns focused on the availability of Mandarin and Cantonese speaking staff, Chinese food, UnionPay facilities, appropriately trained personnel with the cultural sensitivity to allow them to deal with Chinese tourists’ concerns and of course she views ease of visa availability and air access as vitally important. She stressed the importance of working with the right partners (select hotel groups in the Republic and the Hastings Hotel Group in Northern Ireland) in order to get to a new level of service provision. The industry must not be reactive but proactive in improving cultural awareness: in asking what needs to be done in the culinary sphere, in describing what’s on offer on menus and identifying what is needed. She spoke about the most effective routes to market i.e. being on top of social media platforms like WeChat and, in marketing terms, increasing dwell time so that Ireland’s message registers with prospective visitors from China.

Dr. Lenehan supported Tara’s contribution by stressing the need to make sure that hotels and attractions are ready to cope with Chinese visitors. He noted that COTRI (the leading independent organisation in the field of Chinese outbound tourism, which helps clients to forge profitable relations with Chinese customers, as well as fostering the growth of Chinese outbound tourism.) have offices in many countries and that we’re competing with these countries for a slice of the multi-million dollar, Chinese tourism pie. Tony pointed out that business tourists spend 3 or 4 times as much as leisure tourists which seemed to serve as an appropriate introduction for Ms. Adrienne Clarke, Head of Conference Sales, The Convention Centre Dublin whose theme was ‘Introducing The CCD – The World’s Leading Meetings & Conference Centre 2018'.

Adrienne is another person who is very aware of the importance of air access in attracting visitors and she mentioned the 800 flights to London and 800 flights to mainland Europe from Ireland each week. In a sense the Convention Centre’s business is Dublin, praising it as a conference destination and backing that up with the facilities to allow large gatherings to run smoothly, facilities they used to good effect in hosting the 2018 Spring Festival Gala for the Chinese New Year of the Dog.
They have 22 meeting rooms and a 2,000 seater auditorium, exhibition, poster and catering spaces and they offer six all-inclusive packages, especially designed for international visitors, with technical equipment and personnel to cater for their needs. Acutely aware of the need to be China Ready, they produced an online brochure in Mandarin and they are in the market to employ Mandarin speakers to greet guests. Catering-wise, they intend to provide Chinese and vegetarian food, another vital factor in helping them to promote the Convention Centre for Chinese Conferences. Their wi-fi can accommodate 22,000 devices so there are definitely no issues with weak broadband!(this article is continued at the end of the newsletter.)







4. CIMA Book Donation Lexicon Library, 10th April.




From l. to r. Senior Librarian Ms. Marian Keyes,the first cultural secretary Ms. Olga Wang,Counsellor Cormac Devlin, the Deputy Head of Mission and policitical counsellor Ms. Hua Yang, Cathaoirleach DLR County Council Cllr. Tom Murphy, Director of Cultural and Community Services Ms. Dearbhla Lawson,CIMA Deputy Chairperson Ms. Sophy Collier, Director of the Confucius Institute Professor. Liming Wang,CIMA Chairperson Mr. Yuyang Wang, and the Third Secretary of Overseas Chinese Services Ms. Chengcheng Shang.



A wonderful occasion in a marvellous facility as the China Ireland Media Association successfully hosted the ‘One Belt, One Road’ annual Chinese- English bilingual book donation in the Lexicon Library in Dún Laoghaire. The books are beautifully produced and contain many iconic Chinese texts including the classic novels A Dream of Red Mansions, Journey to the West, Romance of the 3 Kingdoms and Outlaws of the Marsh along with works by Confucius and other authors.


Chinese zither(Guzheng)player, Jenny Liu, whose son Jason Liu-Doyle gave a reading on the day and Graphic Artist Angelia Yinnge Xu added to an occasion rich in culture.

These books will help to compensate for the lack of bilingual Mandarin-English books in libraries in Ireland and improve the quality of cultural communication between the two countries, as well as meeting the demand of local Chinese study enthusiasts and Dún Laoghaire residents with Chinese heritage.

Dún Laoghaire Rathdown County Council Cathaoirleach Mr. Tom Murphy tries his hand at a spot of Ink Art painting!


The Cathaoirleach expressed gratitude to CIMA for their support and hoped the occasion would pave the way for even greater cooperation between the two organisations in the future. DHM Ms. Hua Yang was delighted with the initiative and thanked Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council for their cooperation.

Veronica's turn. Not surprisingly, she received a warm round of applause for her efforts.

19th February - AGM. 25th April. Chinese Ink Art Demonstration by Angelia Yingge Xu.




The evening began with an eloquent tribute by Debbie to Jane Almqvist whom she credits with inspiring her to join the ICCS in the first place. A special acknowledgement of Jane’s contribution to the society will be compiled shortly.

The new committee was duly elected. Debbie was thanked for all her great work as President,always carried out with such aplomb, and Yanyi was welcomed into the role as the 4th Chinese President of the ICCS.



After the meeting we were given a demonstration of Chinese ink art by artist and graphic facilitator Angelia Yingge Xu. She showed us the different types of brushes she uses, some made of sheep’s hair and others from wolf hair!

Angelia uses a special ink which is sourced from a pine tree and ground down and a special type of paper, not available in Ireland, which is like rice paper and comes in both yellow and white. The white paper is very soft and strong and absorbs water very well. The yellow version is excellent for calligraphy and also for printing.

Angelia uses a special ink which is sourced from a pine tree and ground down and a special type of paper, not available in Ireland, which is like rice paper and comes in both yellow and white. The white paper is very soft and strong and absorbs water very well. The yellow version is excellent for calligraphy and also for printing.

Carved wooden blocks, made from bamboo, are used to flatten the paper. They are decorated with carvings of flowers and plants: plum blossom, orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum. There is also a magic mat with squares which requires only water to function as the ink is incorporated in the paper. You can use a hair dryer to dry the paper and re-use it.


She informed us that before rice paper was invented, painting was done on silk which was so expensive that only royal families could afford it. It was not until the Ming and Qing dynasties that rice paper became widely available and ink painting became popular among ordinary people.

Angelia painted the character ‘Zen’ 禅 and the painting process, as she went on to describe it, did seem like a form of meditation with body and mind in complete harmony.

Black ink is used in the main as you can see different colours in the dark ink on white paper. Angelia quoted the saying from Taoist philosophy ‘Sometimes when you do nothing you do everything.’ (Wu Wei), doing nothing here is taken to mean not interposing conscious action between oneself and the harmony that emanates from the brush and ink.

Simply sit straight and let the energy radiate from your heart and through your arm to your hand so that it expresses how you’re feeling at that moment. You have to hold the brush in a particular way. You may use the tip of the brush to go straight down to the paper or you can use the side of the brush to do ink blot painting.



In Chinese painting light and dark are used to represent distance. Angelia used a very dark ink and wet her brush although it can be left dry. Then she tested the blackness of the ink on a piece of tissue paper. She painted a bamboo stem and in doing so she had to be very calm as, otherwise, it would show on the canvas. She left gaps in the stem and, in drawing the more distant leaves, she used more water for a lighter effect.


Notwithstanding our new-found insight into the techniques involved, Angelia’s artistry remained hidden in plain sight and the bamboo materialised effortlessly from the paper and ink like a brand of close-up magic. It was a novel and inspiring way to round off the night’s proceedings. Paul Murray










4. 26th April Dinner Sichuan Chilli King Restaurant.



The night after the AGM, a group of us reconvened to spend a very pleasant evening in the Sichuan Chilli King restaurant on Parnell St. As well as the fine food and pleasant company there was the added bonus of being in an area where you can do some late-night Chinese supermarket shopping! Thanks to Anita for organising.


23rd May – Share and Tell Party Photo Gallery.

Stories to be featured in subsequent newsletters.










Asia Market Tour 30th May.




On arrival, we gathered at the entrance to the corridor where the lucky cats are wont to wave good luck to customers but we were in the way of those same customers so we had to move a bit further along to hear Eva Pau’s introduction to Ireland’s Premier Asian Food destination.
The passageway between the exterior food store and the interior is, in actual fact, Eva’s favourite space in the Asia Market and I can understand why because it gives you that ‘through the wardrobe’ Narnia-type feeling as you emerge from a very modest shop into a large, busy market full of a bewildering array of products from various Asian countries, more than 4500 items in all. Luckily, there is a road map to help with navigation as different countries of origin have their own well signposted aisles.





At the outset of our guided tour we were fortified by an offering of green tea, longans (like a smaller version of the lychee) tasty spring rolls and other dainties and, as we made our way through the aisles, we were plied with tastings of both meat and vegetarian dishes. Eva answered all our questions, dished out plenty of information and gave us some useful cooking tips assuming you were better at making mental notes than I was: whatever was that rice dish composed of different types of rice that take the same time to cook, I ask myself.

Never mind. If, like me, you’ve forgotten most of the advice you can always check out the extensive recipe lists on the Asia Market website for inspiration.
Apart from sourcing Asian products the Asia market also works with Irish producers of Asian food and we came away with a basketful of goodies that included the Naas-based Fiona Uyema’s Cheeky Chilli Soy Sauce along with other irresistibly named products such as her Glorious Ginger Soy Sauce. We also bought Golden Curry Sauce Mix, Chinkiang Vinegar and some delicious mochi. Paul Murray





6. Upcoming Events



9th September – Our Annual Barbeque in Wesley House.


24th October –'The Known Unknown - Researching a Hong Kong Family Past’ by Briony Widdis


24th October –'The Known Unknown - Researching a Hong Kong Family Past’ by Briony Widdis


Briony is researching a collection of photographs and artefacts that belonged to her grandparents who lived in Hong Kong (with her father and aunt) 1930 - 1961.

28th November – “Love Actually”



Lisa Li is the initiator and Chairperson of this Chinese Charity which aims to facilitate and help Chinese families with special needs children living in Ireland. The vision of the organisation is that one day children with special needs and their families can be better integrated into our society and the expertise and knowledge in the special needs area will be more easily accessible to those families.

12th December - Foodfest:


Chinese cooking demonstration and tasting at Wesley House.

APPLYING FOR MEMBERSHIP

The Subscription Year for the Society runs from 1st January to 31st December. The annual subscription is €40, with a reduced Student Rate of €10, and a Life Member subscription of €300. Cheques to be made payable to: "The Irish-Chinese Cultural Society". Alternatively, you could pay by way of Standing Order or electronic bank transfer. If so, please email for details to: irishchineseculturalsociety@gmail.com



ICBA Article - Continued


Ms. Siobhan McManamy, Director of Markets, Tourism Ireland was next to address the conference on the topic of ‘Marketing the island of Ireland as a tourism destination in China’. 2017 was a record year for Irish Tourism with revenue in excess of 5.7 million but it is a very dynamic as well as an expanding market: in 2014 Great Britain provided most visitors with mainland Europe in second spot whereas in 2017 mainland Europe was first with the United States in second place. China formed part of tourism Ireland’s emerging market review, alongside Japan, UAE and others but had they known about the direct flights the country would have merited a tier of its own!

Chinese tourists are well-educated, high-spend visitors; all the more reason for any outstanding visa issues to be addressed.

Ireland can be marketed as part of a GB-Ireland package with Dublin, for example, providing the perfect starting point for a European Tour. Honeymoons are an emerging market with Castle Experiences a particular draw.



A lot of valuable research has already been done on profiling and we know, for example, that the breakdown of Chinese tourists visiting Ireland is as follows: 39% couples, 23% friends, 64% over 50s, 91% on package holidays and 93% travelling on to the UK. Marketing successes from a Tourism Ireland perspective include 5 programmes about Ireland on the popular Chinese Talk Show Morning Call which has achieved 64 million views, features on Cityzine, one of China’s leading culture and lifestyle magazines and Lonely Planet and a very successful digital marketing and social media presence as well as an interactive programme on St. Patrick’s Day on the popular Chinese social media platform Sina Weibo.

Siobhán told us about Tourism Ireland’s China Sales Mission this year in which 25 Industry Partners, over 20 media outlets and 115 Chinese tourist outlets took part and mentioned the international travel company, Ctrip.com as a very good partner for Tourism Ireland. Media exposure on Star Wars and Game of Thrones and the ‘greening’ of landmark structures all help to raise the country’s profile among prospective Chinese tourists and Enterprise Ireland is working with Screen Ireland to bring Irish media productions to China, the children’s cartoon series Puffin Rock being an obvious example.

Ms. Caroline Devlin, Council Member, Ireland China Business Association and a partner in the Arthur Cox Tax Group, spoke about ‘Investment in and out of Ireland’. She gave a brief outline of our common law system and assured us that there is equal access for all parties to the Courts with no discrimination. She took us through the kinds of concerns Chinese entrepeneurs would have before undertaking investment in Ireland. ‘Will I be treated like the Irish?’ ‘Will my money be safe?’ Caroline assured us that if anything inward investors are probably treated better than indigenous ones.


There are tensions between a desire to control employees on the ground and the need to hire local people, to have a majority of Irish resident directors in the context of a Chinese reluctance to employ substitute directors and ‘Shamrocking’ as companies wish to maintain control but do work on the ground as well. Arthur Cox can help with resolving these difficulties and devise an employment policy that will satisfy Irish legal requirements. Post-Brexit there will be opportunities in the passporting area and, given international efforts to stamp out offshore accounts and other forms of tax avoidance, companies are keen to locate where they can get a good corporation tax rate. A good way to get companies into the country is to make it easy for them to leave if their plans change and she assured us that the Irish system is very good in this respect. Lastly, she dealt with the matter of outbound investment by entrepeneurs thinking of setting up a business in China.

She left us with a few points of good counsel, using a brief comparison which serves as a warning about the pitfalls involved. In Ireland it takes 3-5 days to set up a business whereas in China it takes 4 -6 months so it is important that any such venture is well-planned, the moral being not to set up a structure you may not need as it will not be simple to unpick it. By all means use word of mouth, preferably the horse’s mouth or a mouth you can trust. Protect your IP. Read the small print or get someone you can trust to do so. Manage finance and payments. Get help but make sure that it’s the right help.

Mr Brian Gallagher, Council Member, Ireland China Business Association spoke about ‘Connectivity’ and being ‘China Ready'.

Brian outlined the DAA corporate structure which comprises Dublin Airport, Cork Airport and DAA International, the operator of Ireland’s State-owned airports. He told us that 15 new airlines have begun operations at Dublin Airport recently with a throughput of 30 million passengers passing through the facility last year.

He mentioned Ryanair’s reinstatement of direct flights to Marrakesh, the more than 1 million extra passengers coming into Dublin Airport this year and the fact that there will be 36 million direct and 4 million indirect passengers out of Ireland. He spoke about the Cathay Pacific flights to Hong Kong which will operate 4 times a week and the Hainan Airlines flights which will be scheduled 4 times a week, with a stopover in Edinburgh on two of them. In the airport, like the hotels, China-Readiness means signage in Mandarin, access to Sina Weibo and WeChat and, importantly, hot water, the go-to beverage for Chinese travellers.

Openness is very important for Ireland and there will be more slots available for the growing Chinese tourism sector when the new runway at Dublin Airport is completed in 2021.

Ms. Mary Ruane, Council Member, ICBA dealt with the topic of ‘Language and cultural preparation: new challenges, new responses’ She focused on Ireland’s linguistic and cultural preparedness for doing business with China and feels it is necessary to consider sectoral needs, what there is to build on already and who should be partnered with in this process.

In relation to government support for the teaching of Chinese she suggested that Level 6 to Level 9 courses would be required and a facility for sending students on work placements abroad as well as the provision of Level 8 University Courses and some postgraduate courses at Level 9 to complement the work of the Confucius Institute classrooms and the development of Chinese in Secondary School as the system gears up for the first sitting of a Mandarin Exam in the Leaving Cert in 2020.

There are other matters that need attention. Institutes of Technology which have been the Primary providers for the Tourism Sector will need to look at the structure of their programmes and the costs associated with them and there is also the problem that the teaching of Chinese is not available outside Dublin. However, on a positive note, new enabling legislation, the Technological Universities Bill, has been signed into law which allows for 12 to 14 new Technological Universities to be established, and Language Connect (Ireland’s Foreign Language Strategy (2017 -2026) outlines specific measures for Chinese including the provision of a full Junior and Leaving Certificate programme.

In considering the issue of attracting Chinese students to study in Ireland a tourism spin-off that should not be ignored is the fact that parents of Chinese students have a curiosity about seeing the place where their children studied.



Mr. Alan Dixon, Council Member, ICBA spoke about ‘Doing business with China - reflections, then and now’ Alan established Ireland’s first Trade Development Office in China in 1979 at a time when Deng Xiao Ping’s Open Door Policy had begun to attract foreign investment into the country. Twelve Irish companies went out to begin with, including two involved with milk powder and aircraft leasing (Tony Ryan,of course, whose academy for entrepeneurship is pictured above). Over the years, for various reasons, there have been times of slower growth in China but that is still mega-growth by European standards leading to disposable incomes doubling in recent years and China’s growing middle class becoming the biggest in the world. It is predominantly a young, e-commerce generation (We chat pay has a billion shoppers and put through I trillion dollars in payments last year), These are young consumers open to the world as exemplified by the fact that Dubai increased tourism from China by over 40% last year.

In doing business with China being China Ready is a must but Alan repeated the message that Irish companies have work to do in this respect. He went on to give us a flavour of the dynamism of modern day China with his description of the Bund area in Shanghai where some internet companies operate the controversial 996 work system (working from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 6 days a week) but one element in China’s 2020 vision involves an aim, through R& D, to lead the world in Artificial Intelligence by then. Maybe that will alleviate some of the strain on human workers! It is a daunting but exciting prospect for Irish entrepeneurs. There are metro lines everywhere in the Bund so plenty of opportunities to board that train the Ambassador mentioned earlier.

Ms. Jenni Smart, International Association Account Manager, Belfast Waterfront and Ulster Hall gave us some insights into the subject of ‘Belfast Waterfront Conference Centre, Best Event Space 2017: A Delegate’s Journey & Experience.’ Jenni’s Belfast, the Belfast of the Waterfront and its sister venue, the Ulster Hall, is a new city full of ambition and energy, compact, walkable and all set to enhance the experience of delegates attending international conferences. In the course of her work she has learnt to take nothing for granted. Sometimes visitors are not too sure where they are and Ireland is confused with Iceland! She referred to recent changes in Chinese educational policy with regard to English in the curriculum as a positive development and the possibility of bringing a Chinese film star here to raise Ireland’s profile. She also praised the Courses provided by Enterprise Ireland which are designed to help companies with the preparatory work that is necessary for entering the Chinese market. So far Irish companies have shown a degree of reluctance to undertake these courses which is a pity as it is important to avoid a mentality that thinks ‘My product is special.’ and assumes that you can begin selling without the necessary preparation.



The Waterfront itself is a relatively recent phenomenon having opened its doors for the first time in 2007 and they don’t do things by halves there. Imagine hosting a dinner for a thousand people. That certainly sounds like a form of China-Readiness to me!

This Newsletter is published by the Irish-Chinese Cultural Society.