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Stephen Carrington

Professor of Veterinary Anatomy

School Of Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Science Centre
Belfield
Dublin 4

Tel: +353 1 7166238
Email: stephen.carrington@ucd.ie

Biography

Present Position
Professor of Veterinary Anatomy, Veterinary Sciences Centre, School of Agriculture Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, UCD

Academic Qualifications:
Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (Edinburgh, 1978)
PhD (Liverpool 1985)
Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (since 1978)
Certificate in Veterinary Ophthalmology (1987)

Previous Positions
1999 - 2003. Head of Preclinical Division & Head of the Department of Veterinary Anatomy. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin.
1997 -1999: Senior Lecturer, University of Bristol, Department of Anatomy (School of Veterinary Science).
1991 - 1997: Lecturer, University of Bristol, Department of Anatomy (School of Veterinary Science).
1990 - 1991: Lecturer, University of London, Royal Veterinary College, Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences.
1988 - 1989: Research Assistant, Department of Morphology, University of Geneva
1988 - 1988: Research Assistant, Department of Immunology, UC and Middlesex School of Medicine, London.
1985 - 1987: Attached worker at the Institute of Ophthalmology, Department of Pathology, London.
1982 - 1985: Wellcome Veterinary Research Training Scholar, Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Liverpool University.
1980- 1981: Feline Advisory Bureau Scholar at the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, Liverpool University.
1978-1979: House Physician in the Small Animal Practice Teaching Unit at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Edinburgh.

Publications

 

Book Chapters

Stark RM, Wiggins R, Walley E, Hicks SJ, Gill, GA, Carrington SD and Corfield AP; (2000) 'Mucinase activity' In: The Mucins (Corfield, A.P., ed.) Methods in Molecular Biology Vol Humana Press, Totowa, USA (eds). GLYCOPROTEIN METHODS AND PROTOCOLS. [Details]
Carrington SD, Hicks SJ, Corfield AP, Kaswan RL, Packer NH, Bolis S, Morris CA.; (1998) 'Structural analysis of secreted ocular mucins in canine dry eye' In: 2nd International Conference on the Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, and Dry Eye Syndromes 2: Basic Science and Clinical Relevance (Bermuda) (eds). ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY. [Details]
 

Peer Reviewed Journals

Tierney, J.B., Matthews, E., Carrington, S.D. and Mulcahy, G.; (2007) 'Interaction of Eimeria tenella with intestinal mucin in vitro'. Journal of Parasitology, 93 (3):634-638. [Details]
Schauer, R., Donapaty, Sreenivasa R>, Carrington, S., Hicks, S., and Corfield, A.; (2005) 'Identification of 9-O-acetyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid in normal canine pre-ocular tear film secreted mucins and its depletion in Keratoconjunctivitis sicca'. Glycoconjugate journal, 22 :409-416. [Details]
Bullimore SR, Corfield AP, Hicks SJ, Goodall C and Carrington SD; (2001) 'Surface Mucus in the Non-Glandular Region of the Equine Stomach'. Research in Veterinary Science, 70 :149-155. [Details]
Sengupta A, Valdramidou D, Huntley S, Hicks SJ, Carrington S, Corfield AP; (2001) 'Distribution of MUC1 in the normal human oral cavity is localized to the ducts of minor salivary glands'. Archives of Oral Biology, 46 :529-538. [Details]
Irwin, J.A., Ryan, J.P., Leonard, M. Carrington, S.D., Baird, A.W.; (2001) 'Mucin-degrading glycosidase activity in Peyer's patches'. Biochemical Society Transactions, 29 (5). [Details]
Hicks SJ, Theodoropoulos G, Carrington SD and Corfield AP; (2000) 'The role of mucins in host/parasite interactions I: protozoan parasites'. Parasitology Today, 16 :476-481. [Details]
Theodoropoulos G, Hicks SJ, Corfield AP, Miller B and Carrington SD; (2000) 'The role of mucins in host/parasite interactions II: helminth parasites'. Parasitology Today, 17 :130-135. [Details]
Hicks SJ, Corfield AP, Kaswan RL, Adam S, Carrington SD; (1998) 'The Biochemical Basis of Ocular Surface Mucin Abnormalities in Dry Eye: The Canine Model'. Experimental Eye Research, 67 :709-718. [Details]
Hicks SJ, Carrington SD, Kaswan RL, Adam S, Corfield AP; (1997) 'Demonstration of discrete secreted and membrane-bound ocular mucins'. Experimental Eye Research, 64 :597-607. [Details]
Corfield AP, Carrington SD, Hicks SJ, Berry M, Ellingham R.; (1997) 'Ocular Mucins: Purification, Metabolism and Functions'. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 16 (2):627-656. [Details]
Garvin AGP, Carrington SD.; (1997) 'Student-authored computer-assisted learning: the teaching and learning outcomes of a programme of assessed group project work producing hypermedia peer-tutorials in Veterinary Anatomy'. The British Journal of Educational Technology, 28 (3):191-198. [Details]
 

Conference Publications

Matthews, E., Royle, L., Gierow, J.P., Corfield, A.P., Berry, M., Rudd P.M., Dwek, R.A., Fitzpatrick, E., Gallagher, M.E., Irwin, J., Reid, C.R. and Carrington, S. D.; (2007) New insights into supramucosal gel turnover: the role of mucin glycosylation Royal Society of Medicine. 8th Jenner Glycobiology and Medicine Symposium. Oct 2007 UCD Dublin Available Online [Details]
Sobkowicz, A., Gallagher, M., Fahy, J.V., Nally, J. E. , Carrington, S.D. and Irwin, J.; (2007) Mucus turnover in the human airway Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
Maischberger, E., Irwin, J., Reid, C.J., Duggan, V., Corfield, A.P. and Carrington, S.D.; (2007) Mucin Gene Expression in the Equine Endometrium Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
Irwin, J.A., Reid, C.J., Thompson, L., Murphy, F., Donnelly, S., Marlin, D.J., Deaton, C.M. and Carrington, S.D.; (2007) Glycosidase activity and mucin expression in equine airway and its association with recurrent airway obstruction Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
Cummins, C., Carrington, S.D., Irwin, J.A., Duggan, V., Corfield, A.P., Reid, C.J. and Fitzpatrick, E.; (2007) A histological characterisation of equine cervical mucins at various stages of the reproductive cycle Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
Smith, A., Clyne, M., Carrington, S.D., Drumm, B., and Reid, C.; (2007) Construction and expression of a truncated version of MUC5AC as a model system to investigate its role in pathogen'mucosal interactions Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
Pluta, K., Fitzpatrick, E., Reid, C., and Carrington, S.D.; (2007) An investigation of the supramucosal gel on the surface of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
Carrington, S.D., Cummins, C., Irwin, J.A., Duggan, V., Corfield, A.P., Fitzpatrick, E. and Reid, C.J.; (2007) Expression of mucin and mucinase genes of the equine cervix in the normally cycling mare and in mares with ascending placentitis Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
McNally, S., Clyne, M., Carrington, S.D. and Reid C; (2007) The generation of a recombinant MUC2 clone to investigate the interaction of Campylobacter jejuni and intestinal mucus Mucins in Health and Disease (9th International Workshop on Carcinoma-associated Mucins) Robinson College Cambridge July 2007 [Details]
Halligan, E., Reid, C., Keely, S., Brayden, D., Carrington, S., & Lunec, J.; (2005) The role of the mucus barrier and lipid peroxides in diet: An in vitro model of a dietry genotoxicity and colorectal cancer Society for Free Radical Research, Warwick , 08-JUL-05 - 11-JUL-05 [Details]
Keely, S., Limer, A., Wilson, C., Carrington, S., Haddleton, D., and Brayden, D.; (2005) In vitro mucus-secreting intestinal models for adhesion of conjugated and branched pDMAEMA polymers Proc. Intern. Symp. Control Rel. Bioact. Mater [Details]
                                                                                         

Research

Research Interests

MUCOSAL BIOLOGY FOCUSSING ON MUCIN GLYCOPROTEINS

1. MUCINS IN THE DEFENCE OF MUCOUS MEMBRANES

The maintenance of a viable barrier between the external and internal environment is an absolute necessity for the sur­vival of all organisms. In higher animals, moist mucous membranes are particularly vulnerable to colonisation and penetration by pathogenic organisms. Here, the defensive ‘front line' is a semi-adherent supramucosal gel, known as mucus. Mucus not only provides a mechanical and lubricative barrier, it also maintains hydration; provides a matrix for a range of surveillance and immune-related proteins; and blocks bacterial adhesion. A mucus gel mostly comprises water, ions and mucin glycoproteins. Mucins may be in membrane-bound or secreted form, and are highly glycosylated linear biopolymers of very high molecular weight (0.5-30 million Daltons). They are synthesised by variously special­ised epithelial and glandular cells and present several core apomucin proteins representing the products of different genes. This diversity, together with the high level of mucin glycosylation (sugar substitution), provides almost infinite biosynthetic possibilities. Such complexity enables a ‘responsive' system, in which mucus gels are 'cus­tomised' to local defensive needs. A fundamental property of these gels is that they ‘turn over', thereby cleansing the surface upon which they lie. Any derangement of the equilibrium between synthesis and breakdown leads to debilitating or life threatening disease (e.g. cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowl disease). Under the theme of investigating the defensive role of mucins, the following interests are currently being pursued within the Dublin Mucin Research Group:
• Homeostasis of mucus gels: models and mechanisms of mucin degradation.
• The role of mucins and molecular decoys
• The role of mucin degradation in host penetration by pathogens
• Expression systems for recombinant mucins, and their use in examining the role of mucins in mucin biosynthesis, supramucosal gel assembly, and microbial and viral adherence to mucosal surfaces.
• Therapeutic augmentation of mucus gels by novel mucoadhesive polymers.
• Mucin glycosylation and mucosal barrier function
• Mucoadhesive vaccines in aquaculture

2. CHITINASES AND CHITINASE-LIKE PROTEINS IN MUCOSAL DEFENCE.

Chitinase and chitinase-like proteins (C-CLPs) are members of the family 18 of glycosyl hydrolases. As their name implies chitinases are capable of degrading chitin and are implicated in defence against chitin-containing pathogens. The chitinase-like proteins are structurally very similar to chitinases but do not possess enzymic activity. Their function is unknown. Two members of the chitinase family of proteins, chitotriosidase (CHIT1) and chitinase-3-like-1 (CHI3L1) are secreted in large quantities by activated macrophages and are implicated in a spectrum of diseases characterized by inflammation and tissue remodeling. We speculate that chitotriosidase may function as an airway ‘mucinase’ and play a role in remodeling of the airway mucin layer. Modification of airway mucin may have profound affects on an individual’s susceptibility to infections. CHI3L1 does not have chitinase activity although it is capable of binding chitin and heparin and may therefore function as a lectin. We are investigating the ability of CHI3L1 to bind to carbohydrates of microbial origin e.g. peptidoglycan and whether this protein may have antimicrobial properties.


Current Research Projects:

Sponsor : Childrens Research Fund. Our Lady’s Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland.
Title : Helicobacter pylori and gastric mucin tropism: the role of MUC5AC.
Start Date : 01-OCT-03

Sponsor : Childrens Research Fund. Our Lady’s Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland.
Title : Colonisation of the Gut by Campylobacter: the role of MUC2.
Start Date : 01-OCT-05

Sponsor : Childrens Research Fund. Our Lady’s Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland.
Title : The Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with the Mucin MUC5AC - a model system for the interaction of pathogens with mucosal surfaces.
Start Date : 01-NOV-06