a. upper respiratory "stem b. urinary bladder c. seminiferous tubules
d. gallbladder e. oviduct
a. osteoblasts b. fibroblast c. smooth muscle cells
d. chondroblasts e. squamous epithelial cells
a. cornea b. nuchal ligament c. myocardium
d. footpad of dogs e. pinna
a. cornea b. lens c. hyaline cartilage d. elastic cartilage e. bone
Q6. From most immature to most mature, what is the correct order of development in
a. osteoprogenitor cell, osteoblast, osteocyte
b. osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoprogenitor cell
c. osteoprogenitor cell, osteocyte, osteoblast
d. osteoblast, osteoprogenitor cell, osteocyte
e. osteoblast, 'osteocyte, osteoprogenitor cell
a. a remnant of rough endoplasmic reticulum b. a nuclear remnant
c. a form of hemoglobin that has been oxidized d. a phagocytized parasite
e. an accumulation of excessive cell membrane
Q9. In mammals, which stage of red blood cell development is the most mature cell
containing a nucleus?
a. rubricyte b. metarubricyte c. reticulocyte
d. rubriblast e. prorubricyte
Q10. Concerning cardiac and skeletal muscle, which statement is most accurate?
a. Cardiac muscle fibers are not striated, whereas skeletal muscle fibers are striated.
b. Cardiac myofiber nuclei are peripherally oriented, whereas skeletal myofiber
nuclei are centrally oriented.
c. Skeletal muscle myofibers exhibit more prominent branching than cardiac muscle myofibers.
d. Cardiac muscle contains structures known as intercalated disks.
e. Skeletal muscle contains structures known as intercalated disks.
Q11. Concerning veins and arteries, which statement is most accurate?
a. Luminal diameter is greater than mural (wall) thickness in veins, whereas luminal diameter is smaller than mural (wall) thickness in arteries.
b. Venules, but not arterioles, contain an internal elastic membrane.
c. Because of the increased amount of smooth muscle in veins, as compared with
that in arteries, veins are more frequently contracted and contain less blood.
d. Elastic fibers are more numerous in large veins than in large arteries.
e. Valves may be seen in medium-sized arteries, but never in medium-sized veins.
Q12. The period of the hair growth cycle in which the hair grows is known as:
a. telogen b. catagen c. anagen d. halogen e. neogen
Q13. In dogs, which structure contains cells referred to as hepatoid or hepatocyte-like?
a. circumanal glands b. anal glands c. ceruminous glands
d. vomeronasal organ e. sebaceous glands surrounding the oral cavity
Q14. Corpora amylacea may be found in the..
a. ceruminous glands b. mammary glands c. sebaceous glands
d. circumanal glands e. pineal gland
Q15. Concerning the equine hoof, which statement is most accurate?
a. Epidermal laminae are classified as insensitive, whereas dermal laminae are
classified as sensitive and the primary epidermal laminae are keratinized.
b. Epidermal laminae are classified as insensitive, whereas dermal laminae are
classified as sensitive and the secondary epidermal laminae are keratinized.
c. Dermal laminae are classified as insensitive, whereas epidermal laminae are
classified as sensitive and the primary dermal laminae are keratinized.
d. Dermal laminae are classified as insensitive, whereas epidermal laminae are
classified as sensitive and the secondary dermal laminae are keratinized.
e. Merocrine sweat glands are present in the digital cushion.
a. odontoblasts b. ameloblasts c. periodontal membrane lining cells
d. enamoblasts e. alveoloblasts
Q17. Concerning gastric cell function, which statement is most accurate?
a. Hydrochlonc acid is secreted by parietal cells.
b. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by chief cells.
c. Argentaffin cells secrete their products directly into the gastric lumen.
d. Argentaffin cells are present in the nonglandular mucosa.
e. Chief cells wrote mucus to help protect the mucosa from erosion.
Q18. Concerning the mesangial cells of the glomerulus, which statement is most accurate?
a. They are of ectodermal origin.
b. They most likely have a phagoeytic and supportive function.
c. They most likely form a portion of the
glomerular filtration barrier.
d. They are of endodermal origin.
e. They are not present in avian kidneys.
Q19. In the mammalian lung, the airways of smallest diameter in which cilia
are absent are the..
a. primary bronchioles b. tertiary bronchioles c. secondary bronchioles
d. alveolar ducts e. alveolar saccules
Q20. Concerning type-I (membranous) and type-II (granular) pneumocytes, which
statement is most accurate?
a. Type-I pneumocytes are squamous, whereas type-11 pneumocytes are cuboidal
b. Type-H pneumocytes are the primary cell lining of the alveoli in the normal adult lung.
c. Type-I pneumocytes produce surfactant and other products.
d. Type-I pneumocytes are cuboidal or round, whereas type-H
pneumocytes are squamous.
e. Type-I and -][I pneumocytes cannot be differentiated with a light microscope.
Q21. Concerning the air sacs of birds, which statement is most accurate?
a. In addition to facilitating movement of air through the lung, they
function in exchange of gases.
b. Most birds have only one air sac.
c. Air sac diverticula are present in bones.
d. There is really no functional difference between the air sac and the lung.
e. Air sacs are limited to the thoracic region.
Q22. Concerning the adrenal cortex, which statement is most accurate?
a. The zona glomerulosa produces glucocorticoids, the zona fasciculata produces
sex hormones, and the zona reticularis produces mineralocorticoids.
b. The zona glomerulosa produces mineralocorticoids, the zona fasciculata
Produces glueocorticoide, and the zona reticularis produces sex hormones.
c. The zona glomerulosa produces mineralocorticoids, the zona fasciculata produces
sex hormones, and the zona reticularis produces glucocorticoids.
d. The zona glomerulosa produces glucocorticoids, the zona fasciculata produces mineralocorticoids, and the zona reticularis produces sex hormones.
e. The zona glomerulosa produces sex hormones, the zona fasciculata produces mineralocorticoids, and the zona reticularis produces glucocorticoids.
Q23. Sertoli cells function in all of the following ways except..
a. provide support and probably nutrition to developing gametes
b. secrete estrogens
c. facilitate release of gametes
d. phagocytize damaged gametes
e. secrete testosterone
Q24. What is the correct order of Spermatogenesis?
a. A spermatogonium, B spermatogonium 1 (intermediate) spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte secondary spermatocyte, spermatid
b. A spermatogonium, I (intermediate) spermatogonium, B spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatid
c. A spermatogonium, I (intermediate) spermatogonium, B Spermatogonium, spermatid, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte
d. B spermatogonium, I (intermediate) spermatogonium, A spermatogonium, spermatid, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte
e. B spermatogonium, A spermatogonium, I (intermediate) spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatid
Q25. During spermatogenesis, which cell is the first to become haploid?
a. spermatid b. primary spermatocyte c. secondary spermatocyte
d. B spermatogonium e. A spermatogonium
Q26. Concerning the normal uterus, which statement is most accurate?
a. The caruncle is a region of the lamina propria-submucosa that is highly
vascularized and contains many glands.
b. The cotyledon is a region of the lamina propria-submucosa that is highly
vascularized and contains many glands.
c. Changes that occur during the estrous cycle include glandular activity,
vascularization and leukocyte infiltration.
d. Changes that occur during the estrous cycle include epithelial keratinization
and leukocyte infiltration.
e. The cotyledon is a region of the lamina propria-submucosa that is highly vascularized but nonglandular.
Q27. Diffuse placentation is present in:
a. horse and pigs b. horses and cattle c. dogs and cats
d. dogi3 and ferrets e. horses and dogs
Q28. Concerning the trophoblast, which statement is beast accurate?
a. Trophoblast cells form the outer layer of the blastoeyst.
b. During nidation in mares (early attachment to the uterus), trophoblasts
invade the uterine mucosa, providing a point of attachment.
c. Trophoblasts are involved in formation of endometrial cups.
d. Trophoblasts transport oxygen to the newly fertilized ovum.
e. Trophoblasts arise from the chorioallantoic placenta.
Q29. Concerning reproduction in birds, which statement is last accurate?
a. Only one functional ovary and oviduct are retained in adults.
b. A corpus luteum does not form after ovulation.
c. Both infundibular glands and sperm host glands may store spermatozoa.
d. The vagina is also known as the "shell gland."
e. The uterus is responsible for formation of the egg shell.
Q30. Concerning the normal cornea, which statement is least accurate?
a. The rostral epithelium consists of cornified stratified squamous epithelium.
b. It contains numerous nerve endings.
c. It is avascular, and diffusion of nutrients is the mechanism for nutritive supply.
d. In major domestic species, the equine cornea is the most sensitive to injury.
e. Edema results in separation of tissue within the substantia propria.
Q31. Which layer is especially well developed in the footpad of dogs?
a. stratum granulosum b. stratum basale c. stratum lucidum
d. stratum spinosum e. stratum germinativum
Q32. The uveal tract consists of the.
a. choroid, ciliary body and retina
b. choroid, iris and retina
c. choroid, ciliary body and iris
d. choroid, ciliary body and lens
e. retina, choroid and lens
Q33. Which species does not have a tapetum lucidum?
Q34. Another name for interstitial cells of the Testis is:
a. seminiferous cells b. Sertoli cells c. accessory cells
d. Leydig cells e. supporting cells
Q35. The predominant type of connective tissue in tendons and ligaments is:
a. areolar connective tissue
b. irregular dense white fibrous connective tissue
c. regular dense white fibrous connective tissue
d. elastic connective tissue
Q36. Concerning brown adipose tissue, which statement is least accurate?
a. It contains numerous mitochondria.
b. It is histologically distinct from white adipose tissue.
c. It is less well supplied with blood vessels and nerves than is white adipose tissue.
d. Thermoregulation is an important feature.
e. In most species, it is more abundant in neonates than in mature animals.
Q37. The multinucleated giant cell responsible for remodeling of osteoid is the..
a. osteocyte b. osteoblast c osteoclast
d. chondroclast e . foreign-body giant cell
Q38. Abnormal transformation of a specific, adult, fully differentiated tissue into
another differentiated type is called..
Q39. Woven bone is also known as..
Q40. Osteoclasts are derived from:
a. macrophages b. osteocytes c. osteoblasts d. osteoprogenitor cells
Q41. Heinz bodies, also known as erythrocyte refractile bodies, consist of.
a. nuclear fragments b. mitochondrial remnants c. oxidized hemoglobin
d. phagocytized pigments e. accumulations of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Q42. Poikilocytes include all of the following forms of red blood cells except..
a. acanthocytes b. leptocytes c. schistocytes
d. stomatocytes e. globulocytes
Q43. Rouleaux formation (stacking of red blood cells) is most commonly
encountered in normal..
Q44. The first site of hematopoiesis during embryonic development is the..
Q45. Concerning muscle fibers, which statement is most accurate?
a. Red muscle fibers consist primarily of type-I fibers, which contain abundant mitochondria and myoglobin.
b. White muscle fibers consist primarily of type-I fibers, which contain minimal myoglobin and mitochondria.
c. Type-I fibers are also known as fast-twitch fibers.
d. Type-H fibers are also known as slow-twitch fibers.
e. There is no difference in myofiber type in the breast muscle of a duck as
compared with the breast muscle of a chicken.
Q46. In which vessels are valves present?
a. vena cava and lymph vessels
b. small and medium-sized veins and lymph vessels
c. small and medium-sized arteries and lymph vessels
d. small and medium-sized arteries
e. vena cava and small veins
Q47. What species has lymph nodes in which lymphatic nodules are located in the
central or medullary regions, and structures described as 'medullary cords'
are located in the peripheral or cortical region?
Q48. Hemal nodes are found in:
a. dogs and cats b. ruminants c. horses and cattle
d. horses and sheep e. dogs and horses
Q49. Hassall's corpuscles may be found in the..
Q50. Abundant adipose tissue is found in the..
a. scrotum and eyelid
b. frog of horse and pinna of dogs
c. digital cushion of horses and footpad of dogs
d. point of attachment of the dew claw
e. pharyngeal mucosa
Q51. Integumentary melanin pigment is most abundant in the..
a. stratum basale and stratum spinosum
b. stratum lucidum and stratum folliculosum
c. stratum granulosum and stratum superficialis
d. stratum corneum and stratum dermosum
e. stratum disjuncture and stratum epidermosum
Q52. Keratohyaline granules are present in the..
a. stratum basale b. stratum lucidum c. stratum granulosum
d. stratum corneum e. stratum disjuncture
Q53. When mineralized, predentin becomes dentin. Predentin is secreted by..
a. ameloblasts b. osteoblasts and osteocytes c. odontoblasts
d. fibroblasts and fibrocytes e. amelocytes
Q54. Which cells of the gastric mucosa secrete materials into the lamina propria
(subsequently taken up by vasculature) rather than into the gastric lumen?
a. parietal cells b. zymogen cells c. argentaffin (enterochromaffin) cells
d. mucous neck cells e. chief cells
Q55. Zymogen cells of the gastric mucosa are also known as.
a. transitional cells b. oxyntic cells c. extrinsic cells
d. chief cells e. parietal cells
Q56. Paneth cells are present in the..
a. small intestine of ruminants and horse
b. stomach of dogs
c. pancreas of most domestic species
d. large intestine of cats
e. small intestine of cats
Q57. Brunner's glands are found in the..
a. duodenal mucosa b. ileal mucosa c. duodenal submucosa
d. ileal submucosa e. duodenal muscularis
Q58. Concerning juxtaglomerular cells, which statement is most accurate?
a. They are modified smooth muscle cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole and they
b. They are modified smooth muscle cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole and they secrete anglotensin.
c. They are modified smooth muscle cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole and they secrete aldosterone.
d. They are modified epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule and they secrete
e. They are modified epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule and they
Q59. Cartilaginous ring/plaques are associated with the.
a. primary bronchi b. alveolar saccules c. secondary bronchioles
d. primary bronchioles e. tertiary bronchioles
Q60. Which species has the most well-developed bronchioles?
Q61. Concerning the lungs of birds, which statement is most accurate?
a. They are quite similar, histologically, to the lungs of mammals.
b. Relative to the size of the thoracic cavity, they are extremely small.
c. Their volume changes with the respiratory cycle.
d. They are not continuous with the air sacs.
e. They serve the same function as the air sacs.
Q62. Insulin is secreted by which type of pancreatic islet cells?
Q63. Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylue cells include all of the following except..
a. cells that secrete gastrointestinal hormones
b. C (parafollicular) cells of the thyroid
c. pancreatic islet cells
d. cells within the parathyroid gland
e. adrenal medullary cells
Q64. Cells that comprise the corona radiata surrounding the primary oocyte are..
a. granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus
b. granulosa cells of the zona
c. thecal cells of the cumulus oophorus
d. thecal cells of the zona pellucida
Q65. Concerning the lens in adult animals, which statement is most accurate?
a. Epithelium is present on the rostral surface only.
b. Epithelium is present on the caudal surface only.
c. Both the rostral and caudal surfaces have epithelium.
d. Neither the rostral nor the caudal surface has epithelium.
e. The epithelium is stratified squamous.
Q66. Concerning the retina, which statement is least accurate?
a. The fundus of birds and some mammals (chinchilla, armadillo, bat) is avascular.
b. Rods are generally distributed throughout the retina, whereas cones are the
predominant type of photoreceptor in the area centralis retinae.
c. Astrocytes, oligodendroglia and microglia may be present in the retina.
d. It forms the innermost layer of the eye.
e. It forms a portion of the uveal tract.
Q67. The most abundant type of collagen in cartilage is:
Q68. Fibroblast can be differentiated from fibrocytes by their..
a. larger, more oval nucleus b. less abundant cytoplasm
c. more eosinophilic cyptoplasm
d. less prominent nucleolus e. more spindle-shaped nucleus
Q69. Abundant fibrocartilage can be found in the..
a. nose b. larynx c. trachea and bronchi d. external ear
e. intervertebral disks
Q70. Which type of cartilage lacks a distinct perichondrium?
a. hyaline cartilage b. elastic cartilage c. fibrocartilage
d. cartilage of the appendicular skeleton e. cartilage of the flat bones of the skull
Q71. Intramembranous ossification occurs in bones of the..
Q72. As one progresses distally toward the diaphysis, the correct order of cartilage zones within the growth plate is:
a. proliferation, maturation, mineralization ossification, resting
b. proliferation, maturation, resting, mineralization and ossification
c. resting, proliferation, mineralization and ossification, maturation
d. resting, proliferation, maturation, mineralization and ossification
e. resting, maturation, proliferation, mineralization and ossification
Q73. Concerning red blood cells in normal goats, which statement is most accurate?
a. They are slightly larger than the red blood cells in normal don.
b. Rouleaux formation is common.
c. Anisocytosis and even poikilocytosis are common.
d. Nucleated forms are common.
e. The percentage 6f reticulated red blood cells in normal goats is 10- 15%.
Q74. Concerning the morphology of eosinophils, which statement is most accurate?
a. Canine eosinophilic granules stain intensely orange.
b. Feline eosinophilic granules are nearly perfectly round.
c. Porcine eosinophilic granules are rod shaped.
d. Equine eosinophilic granules are round, 1 and so numerous that they frequently obscure the nucleus.
e. Equine eosinophils are large and rod shaped, and so numerous that they frequently obscure the nucleus.
Q75. In which species do circulating 1_wnphocytes normally outnumber neutrophils?
Q76. The external elastic lamina of an artery defines the outer limit of the.
a. intima b. media c. adventitia d. endothelium e. vasa vasorum
Q77. A sinusoidal spleen has abundant venous sinuses and can store large amounts of
blood for quick release if needed. Which animals do not have a sinusoidal teen?
Q78. What is the major hemtatopoietic activity of the spleen in adult animals?
a. erythropoiesis b. lymphopoiesis c. granulopoiesis
d. erythropoiesis and lymphopoiesis e. lymphopoiesis and granulopoiesis
Q79. Which animals have the most prominent peribronchiolar mucous glands?
Q80. Which species has a nonkeratinized esophageal tunica mucosa?
Q81. Which species has submucosal glands along the entire length of the esophagus?
Q82. Which species does not have a nonglandular portion of the stomach?
Q83. The mucosal lining of the omasum, reticulum and rumen consists of.
a. stratified squamous epithelium
b. stratified columnar epithelium
c. transitional epithelium
d. cuboidal epithelium
e. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Q84. Which segment of bowel contains the highest proportion of goblet cells?
Q85. Fibrous connective tissue separates each hepatic lobule in:
Q86. Melanophore-rich caruncular regions are present in:
Q87. Cytologic examination of a vaginal smear from a female dog in heat is most likely to reveal..
a. occasional red blood cells and many cornified squamous epithelial cells
b. occasional red blood cells and scattered cornified squamous epithelial cells
c. numerous red blood cells and many cornified squamous epithelial cells
d. occasional red blood cells and many noncornified squamous epithelial cells
e. numerous red blood cells and many noncornified squamous epithelial cells
Q88. Tarsal gland of the eyelid are classified as..
a. sebaceous glands b. sweat glands c. lymphoid tissue
d. mucous glands e. endocrine glands
Q89. Which species has a relatively thick pleura?
Q90. Concerning the intestinal tract, which statement is least accurate?
a. The tunica mucosa is thicker in the colon than in the small intestine.
b. Villi are present in the colon but not in the small intestine.
c. Goblet cells are more abundant in the colon than in the small intestine.
d. Aggregates of lymphoid cells (Peyer's patches) are more common in the distal
small intestine than in the proximal small intestine.
e. In the small intestine, cell division occurs at the villus tip.
Q91. Which species does not have a gallbladder?
Q92. On histologic examination, the thymic cortex appears darker than the medulla
a. melanin pigment in the medulla
b. lipofuscin pigment in the medulla
c. the high density of epithelial cells in the medulla
d. the high density of lymphocytes in the medulla
e. hemosiderin in the medulla
Q93. Myoepithelial cells are most prominent in the..
a. apocrine glands of the anal sac
b. harderian glands
c. mammary glands
d. tarsal glands
e. meibomian glands
Q94. Hyaluronic acid is abundant in the..
a. skin b. synovial fluid c. cornea d. cartilage e. myocardium
Q95. Concerning the 8pkm, which statement is least accurate?
a. The red pulp predominates over the white pulp.
b. Of domestic species, the horse has the thickest capsule.
c. Periarterial lymphatic sheaths are composed of T-lymphocytes.
d. The spleen of a ruminant can be classified as sinusoidal.
e. It is one of the possible sites of extramedullary hematopoiesis.
Q96. Which structure is lined with simple ,squamous epithelium?
a. blood vessels b. urinary bladder c. ventricles of the brain
d. bronchi e. gallbladder
Q97. Concerning epithelium, which statement is least accurate?
a. With pseudostratified epithelium, not all cells contact the basement membrane,
but all reach the surface.
b. Ciliated cuboidal epithelium is present in the ventricles of the brain
(ependymal cells) and in the terminal bronchioles of the lung.
c. Ciliated columnar epithelium is present in the tertiary bronchi, uterus and oviducts.
d. The epidermal laminae of horses are composed of squamous epithelial cells.
e. The peritoneal and pleural cavities are lined by simple squamous epithelium.
Q98. What does the term "argyrophilic" mean?
a. stains positively with gold impregnation techniques
b. stains positively with silver impregnation techniques
c. stains positively with argon-based stains
d. the ability of a single stain to impart a different color to different granules
e. abundant arginine in the matrix
Q99. Purkinje cells that are histologically distinct are found in the..
a. cerebrum and myocardium
b. cerebellum and myocardium
c. brainstem and myocardium
d. testis and ovary
e. adrenal gland and testis
Q100. Which tissue normally involutes with the onset of puberty?
Q101. Herring bodies are found in the..
a. thymus b. neurohypophysis c. proximal renal tubular epithelium
d. mammary gland e. cerebrum
Q102. Kupffer cells are found in the..
a. spleen b. large intestinal mucosa c. gastric mucosa d. liver
Q103. Which cells are not found in the retina?
a. sustentacular cells b. inner plexiform cells c. rods
d. cones e. ganglion cells
Q104. Concerning the intestinal tract, which .statement is least accurate?
a. Villi serve to increase the surface area for absorption.
b. In the normal maturation process, epithelial cells migrate distally along the
contour of the villi.
c. Peyer's patches are found only in the ileum.
d. On sections stained with hemotoxylin and eosin, mucus within the epithelial-cell cytoplasm appears as large, round, clear vacuoles.
e. Brunner's glands are present in the duodenum.
Q105. Which cell has an eccentric nucleus?
a. lymphoblast b. plasma cell c. mast cell d. basophil e. fibroblast
Q106. Concerning megakaryocytes, which statement is least accurate?
a. They contain a relatively large volume of cytoplasm.
b. They are multinucleated.
c. Thrombocytes, or platelets, arise from megakaryocytes.
d. They are most abundant in the bone marrow.
e. They can be found in the spleen of normal animas.
Q107. One of the major functions of Kupffer cells is..
a. production of collagen
b. production of glucagon
d. accumulation of excess vitamin A
e. production of C-reactive protein
Q108. Concerning the histologic appearance of smooth muscle, which statement is most accurate?
a. The nucleus is classically described as "cigar shaped" because of its rounded ends.
b. The nucleus has sharp, angular ends.
c. Smooth muscle cells are arranged in tight whorls.
d. Smooth muscle cells are arranged singly in a loose mucinous background.
e. Smooth muscle cells are typically observed against a collagenous background.
Q109. From which embryonic cell layer is the derived?
Q110. Discontinuous endothelium is found in the..
a. thymus b. brain c. liver d. nasal cavity e. testis