The UCD School of Veterinary Medicine Digital Research Wall was established to showcase a selection of publications from the School which have been identified as being of particular significance due to their impact and diversity. The selection of publications displayed here will be updated biannually.
This article describes antimicrobial use in 2016 for 67 Irish pig farms representing 35% of national production. The pig sector accounts for approximately 40% of veterinary antimicrobial use in provide a useful benchmark for the industry in light of expected reductions of use following the introduction of new EU regulations on antimicrobial use in January 2022.
In this manuscript we explored how genetic differences between the agent of bovine TB Mycobacterium bovis and the human TB pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis affect pathogen phenotype. We focussed on a locus that contains genes encoding PknH, serine/threonine kinases which had previously been linked to the regulation of several bacterial processes including virulence. We found that the M. bovis pknH genes show a conserved deletion that is not present in M. tuberculosis strains, and we evaluated the impact of these variations on pathogen virulence. Our work revealed a previously unknown role for these genes in virulence of TB pathogens.
The journey of life, from primordial protoplasm to a complex vertebrate form, is a tale of survival against incessant alterations in climate, surface topography, food chain, and chemistry of the external environment. Kidneys present with an ensemble embodiment of the adaptations devised by diverse life-forms to cope with such challenges and maintain a chemical equilibrium of water and solutes, both in and outside the body. This minireview revisits renal evolution utilizing the classic: From Fish to Philosopher; the story of our internal environment, by Prof. Homer W. Smith (1895–1962) as a template. Prof. Smith’s views exemplified the invention of glomeruli, or its abolishment, as a mechanism to filter water. Moreover, with the need to preserve water, as in reptiles, the loop of Henle was introduced to concentrate urine. When compared to smaller mammals, the larger ones, albeit having loops of Henle of similar lengths, demonstrated a distinct packing of the nephrons in kidneys. Moreover, the renal portal system degenerated in mammals, while still present in other vertebrates. This account will present with a critique of the current concepts of renal evolution while examining how various other factors, including the ones that we know more about now, such as genetic factors, synchronize to achieve renal development. Finally, it will try to assess the validity of ideas laid by Prof. Smith with the knowledge that we possess now, and understand the complex architecture that evolution has imprinted on the kidneys during its struggle to survive over epochs.
Despite their athleticism, greyhounds often have low thyroid hormone concentrations in health. We examined the proteins that carry thyroid hormones in the blood of dogs and found similar structure of all, but lower concentrations of one of these proteins in greyhounds, partly explaining the lower thyroid hormone values in this breed. Understanding thyroid function in health helps to prevent an incorrect diagnosis of hypothyroidism and unnecessary lifelong treatment.
This research provides an updated review of complications related to laparoscopic and laparoscopic-assisted procedures in dogs. It highlights that there is a need for implementation of standardised criteria for defining complications, study time frames and greater numbers of high quality prospective randomised trials in veterinary laparoscopy to permit comparison of complication and conversion rates between published studies and across organ systems.
Insulinomas are neoplastic endocrine tumours seen in dogs. Animals with insulinomas present with hypoglycaemia, and as a result are weak, have exercise intolerance, or can present with neurological signs such as seizures. This study was a multicentre retrospective study and found that stage I disease is associated with longest survival, postoperative hypoglycaemia is associated with a poorer outcome and higher than previously recognised rates of postoperative hyperglycaemia and persistent diabetes mellitus were identified.