Photo of

Text reads: ‘Help! Everything to the Front! Everybody to the Front!’

Source: Collections of the Biblioteka Jagellionska (Library of the Jagellionska University Cracow)

Tomas Balkelis

Dr Balkelis' research has focused on writing a new history of paramilitary violence and its impact on populations in Lithuania, Poland, and Belarus between 1918 and 1923.
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Julia Eichenberg

In the frame of this project, Dr Julia Eichenberg contributed a comparative study of paramilitary violence in Poland and Ireland after the First World War, 1918-1923. Her earlier doctoral research focused on Polish veterans of the First World War and their participation in an international veterans movement. She has published on violence, veterans’ welfare, pacifism and international collaboration in the interwar period and has edited a special issue of the Journal of Contemporary European History ("Aftershocks. Violence in Dissolving Empires after the First World War”) with Dr John Paul Newman.
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James Kitchen 

Dr Kitchen worked on the demobilization experiences of the British imperial forces serving in Egypt after the First World War. This multi-national and multi-ethnic force, drawn from across the British Empire, played a vital role in suppressing Egyptian nationalist agitation in spring 1919, which was followed by extensive disciplinary problems connected to its delayed demobilization. His research explored the transition from large-scale combat operations during the First World War to imperial policing in its aftermath, the multi-faceted nature of the resulting demobilization protests, and the cultures of violence that existed amongst troops serving in Egypt.
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John Paul Newman

Dr Newman contributed a case study of paramilitary violence in the Balkans between 1918 and 1923 to the project. He has a particular interest in Serbian fascism and disabled war veterans.
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Gajendra Singh

Dr Gajendra Singh's research, as part of the ‘The Limits of Demobilization’ project, was an investigation of the Ghadar Movement, which arose among a nascent Indian diaspora in North America in the 1910s and 1920s and which took the form of attempted armed revolt in colonial India.
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U?ur Ümit Üngör

Dr Üngör explored how and why victims and survivors of violence can cross borders and become perpetrators of violence in receiving societies. Sociological research has suggested that the movement of hundreds of thousands of often traumatized and victimized people from one society to another can produce opportunity structures for political elites to enlist them in formations such as paramilitary units. The historical context for this research will be the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian Empires, when a series of expulsions, massacres, and other forms of persecution severely damaged relations between peoples in the Balkans, Anatolia, and the Caucasus.
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