GEOL40660 Stratigraphic prediction (2.5 credits)
Module Co-ordinator Peter Haughton
A module focussing on how to build stratigraphic correlations and predict lithology using core and well data. It will introduce core-to-log ties and correlation strategies including surface based correlations in 3D using sequence stratigraphic principles. The module will also cover the application of bio-, chemo- and cyclostratigraphy in setting up correlation frameworks. Examples from deeper subsurface reservoir analysis, behind-outcrop coring, and shallow geotechnical and groundwater-related projects will form the basis of a series of related practical sessions.
Lecture 1: Introduction to stratigraphic principles
Lecture 2: Facies concept – 1D to 4D
Lecture 3: Generating stratigraphy
Lecture 4: Modern coastal settings – what lies beneath?
Lecture 5: Biostratigraphy 1
Lecture 6: Biostratigraphy 2
Lecture 7: Introduction to sequence stratigraphy
Lecture 8: Parasequences and sequence sub-division
Lecture 9: Surface-based correlation in practice
Lecture 10: Additional stratigraphic tools
Practical 1: Predicting stratigraphic relationships away from a vertical section.
Practical 2: Cocco delta exercise. Reconstructing Holocene history and shallow subsurface stratigraphy from Google Earth imagery.
Practical 3: Biostratigraphic exercises.
Practical 4: Surface based correlation exercises.
Practical 5: Ferron Sandstone correlation using behind-outcrop boreholes
GEOL40530 Applied Structural Geology (2.5 credits)
Module Co-ordinator Conrad Childs
This module will provide the background required to constrain the structural geological aspects of subsurface geomodels. Starting from an introduction to the most important structures, the module will consider how these structures form, the conditions under which they form and the controls on their deformation style and geometrical properties. The module will consider how the subsurface can be structurally characterised from different data sources and over a range of scales. Methods for constraining subsurface 3D structure and constructing and testing geometrically realistic and geologically plausible structural models of the subsurface will be reviewed.
Lecture 1. Stress and rock failure
Lecture 2. Fractures and their interpretation
Lecture 3. Fault geometry and displacement distribution; normal faults
Lecture 4. Fault geometry and displacement distribution; thrusts and strike-slip faults
Lecture 5. Fault rocks and fault zones
Lecture 6. Shear zones and ductile deformation
Lecture 7. Fold geometry and folding mechanisms
Lecture 8. The scaling of geological structures
Lecture 9. Controls of pre-existing structure and fault reactivation
Lecture 10. Structural associations and timing of structures
Practical 1. Orientation analysis using stereonets
Practical 2. Structural mapping from boreholes
Practical 3. Structural evolution from seismic data/displacement mapping
Practical 4. Fault Seal Analysis
Practical 5. Structural validation and restoration
GEOL40700 Applied Quaternary Geology (2.5 credits)
Module Co-ordinator Sam Kelley
This module explores the geologic record of the past 2.6 million years, and in particular, the effect that Quaternary glacial activity has had on the landscape. In many cases, unconsolidated deposits from the Quaternary are discontinuous and heterogeneous, posing challenges to subsurface description. Recognizing the deposits architecture, common landforms, and erosion and depositional processes related to the Quaternary geologic record are key in accurately characterizing Quaternary deposits. This information underpins many industries including mineral exploration, aggregate extraction, groundwater monitoring, and environmental remediation.
This module uses lecture, practicals, and field trips. Field trips will be used to examine topics covered in lecture in more detail, and incorporate the collection of field observations with computer based interpretation. Topics covered include:
Ice Sheets and Glaciers
Mineral exploration in unconsolidated sediments (drift prospecting, stream sediment sampling, etc.)
Geotechnical properties of Quaternary sediments
Weathering and soils
GEOL40560 Geofluids and geomechanics (2.5 credits)
Module Co-ordinator Tom Manzocchi
This 2.5 credit module concerns the behaviour of fluids and stresses in the subsurface as a function of natural geological processes and in response to human-induced perturbations. Topics include single and two-phase flow processes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, the development and release of overpressures and stresses, and induced seismicity and subsidence. Applications to ground-water, geothermal, oil and gas and carbon sequestration will be addressed in lectures and practical classes.
Lecture 1. Rheology and constitutive properties of geomaterials
Lecture 2. Mechanics of hydrocarbon migration and trapping
Lecture 3. Pressure, overpressure and hydrodynamic flow in subsiding sedimentary basins
Lecture 4. Fracture and flow in subsiding and uplifted basins
Lecture 5. Properties of uplifted basins and crystalline rock
Lecture 6. PVT properties of geofluids
Lecture 7. Capillary-dominated two-phase flow: Drainage and imbibition
Lecture 8. Mechanics of CO2 sequestration
Lecture 9. Mechanics of hydrocarbon production
Lecture 10. EOR and CO2EOR
All practicals are based on pen-and-paper (plus, where appropriate, Microsoft excel) exercises of idealised sub-surface problems.
Practical 1: Assessment of spill and leakage of migrating gas and oil.
Practical 2: Assessment of a tilted fluid contact from RFT data.
Practical 3: Volumetric assessment of hydrocarbons in place.
Practical 4: Assessment of an injectivity strategy for CO2 sequestration.
Practical 5: Assessment of geomechanical risk of a sequestration site